Chronology

21 March 1618

Protestants Ordered to Disperse

King Matthias orders the Protestant assembly to dissolve

18 May 1618

Protestants Assemble

The Protestant Bohemians assemble at Prague in defiance of royal command

22 May 1618

Protestants Decide to Act

The radical Bohemian Protestants meet secretly and decide to act against the Habsburg regents

23 May 1618

Defenestration of Prague

Protestant rebels throw Habsburg officials from the window of the Castle Hradshin

24 May 1618

Apologia Published

Protestant rebels published the Apologia, justifying the Defenstration

25 May 1618

Bohemian Government Organized

The Protestant rebels organize a committee to govern Bohemia

26 June 1618

Moravian Estates Meet

The Moravian Estates assemble in response to the Bohemian rebellion

3 July 1618

Silesian Estates Meet

The Silesian Estates assemble at Breslau in response to the Bohemian revolt

20 July 1618

Khlesl Arrested

Cardinal Khlesl, advisor to Emperor Matthias, is arrested by Ferdinand

1 October 1618

Silesians Despatch Troops

The Silesians estates despatch troops to aid the Bohemians

21 November 1618

Mansfeldt Takes Pilsen

The Bohemian army under Mansfeldt takes the city of Pilsen, which had remained loyal to the Habsburgs

25 November 1618

Mansfeldt Enters Austria

The Bohemian army under Mansfeldt crosses the Austrian border

4 December 1618

Moravian Estates Meet

The Moravian Estates assemble to consider joining the Bohemian rebellion

20 March 1619

Matthias Dies

Holy Roman Emperor Matthias dies of natural causes at Vienna

5 June 1619

Ferdinand Menaced

With Vienna beseiged, pro-rebel nobles menace Ferdinand in his own throneroom

10 June 1619

Battle of Zablati

Mansfeldt and the Bohemian rebels are defeated by the Habsburgs at Zablati

14 June 1619

Vienna Siege Lifted

Thurn and the Bohemian rebels lift the siege of Vienna

15 June 1619

Hohenloe Retreats

In the wake of Zablati, Hohenloe raises the siege of Budweis and retreats

8 July 1619

Bohemian Estates Meet

The Bohemian Estates meet at Prague, attended by representatives of Lusatia, Silesia and Moravia

11 July 1619

Ferdinand Leaves Vienna

Ferdinand leaves Viennna for the Electoral Congress at Frankfurt

28 July 1619

Electoral Congress Convenes

The Electors convene to elect the successor to the late Emperor Matthias

28 July 1619

Ferdinand Arrives in Frankfurt

Ferdinand arrives at the Electoral Congress in Frankfurt

31 July 1619

Act of Confederation

The Bohemians, Lusatians, Silesians and Moravians ally under the Act of Confederation

19 August 1619

Ferdinand Deposed

The Bohemian, Moravian, Silesian and Lusatian Estates depose Ferdinand

26 August 1619

Frederick Offered Crown

The Elector Palatine is offered the crown of Bohemia

28 August 1619

Imperial Election

Ferdinand is elected Holy Roman Emperor

5 September 1619

Bethlen Takes Kaschau

Bethlen Gabor and his Transylvanians take Kaschau

12 September 1619

Protestant Union Meets

The Protestant Union assembles at Rothenburg

25 September 1619

Frederick Accepts Throne

Frederick, Elector Palatine, decides to accept the Bohemian throne

29 September 1619

Bucquoy Retreats

The Imperial Army marches south to Austria to deal with the Transylvanian threat in their rear

8 October 1619

Treaty of Munich

Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and the Emperor ally

12 October 1619

Bethlen Enters Pressburg

The Transylvanian army under Bethlen Gabor enters Pressburg (Bratislava)

24 October 1619

Battle of Ulmkirchen

The Habsburg and Bohemian armies clash at Ulmkirchen, Austria

25 October 1619

Bucquoi Crosses the Danube

The Habsburg army under Bucquoi crosses the Danube to take up defensive positions around Viennea

4 November 1619

Frederick Crowned

Frederick V, Elector Palatine, is formally crowned King of Bohemia

21 November 1619

Bohemians Enter Hungary

The Bohemian army crosses into Hungary to join forces with Bethlen

5 December 1619

Bethlen Retreats

Bethlen and the Bohemian army lift the siege of Vienna and retreat toward Pressburg (Bratislava)

12 January 1620

Spain Increases Subsidy

Spain agrees to provide Emperor Ferdinand II with additional troops

15 January 1620

Bethlen Elected Prince

Bethlen Gabor is elected Prince of Hungary

16 January 1620

Bethlen Makes Peace

Bethlen Gabor and the Habsburgs make peace on terms favorable to Bethlen

11 March 1620

The Mulhausen Guaranty

At its meeting at Mulhausen (Mulhouse), the Catholic League agrees that it will not seek to desecularize bishoprics in the Lower Saxon Circle

30 April 1620

Emperor Orders Frederick from Bohemia

The Emperor issues a mandate requiring Frederick V to depart Bohemia

3 July 1620

Treaty of Ulm

The Catholic League and the Protestant Union enter into the Treaty of Ulm pledging not to battle each other within the Empire

20 July 1620

Tilly Enters Austria

The Catholic League army under Tilly enters Upper Austria

4 August 1620

Tilly Takes Linz

The Catholic League army takes Linz

5 September 1620

Spinola Crosses the Rhine

The Spanish army under Spinola crosses the Rhine into the Palatinate

8 September 1620

Tilly Enters Lower Austria

A Catholic League army under Tilly crosses into Lower Austria

10 September 1620

Spinola Takes Kreuznach

The Spanish army under Spinola takes Kreuznach in the Palatinate

14 September 1620

Spinola Takes Oppenheim

The Spanish army under Spinola takes Oppenheim in the Palatinate

20 September 1620

Tilly Enters Bohemia

A Catholic League and Imperial armies under Tilly cross into Bohemia

5 October 1620

Imperials Bypass Pilsen

The Imperial army bypasses Pilsen and strikes for Prague

5 October 1620

Saxons Take Bautzen

The Saxons take Bautzen

5 November 1620

Imperials Strike for Prague

The Imperial army elude the Bohemian blocking force at Rokycany and march on Prague

8 November 1620

Battle of White Mountain

Tilly destroys the Bohemian rebels outside Prague

13 November 1620

Bohemians Tender Homage

The Bohemian rebellion ends as the estates tender homage to the Emperor

5 December 1620

Catholic League Convenes

The Catholic League meets at Wurzburg

10 December 1620

Moravians Capitulate

The Moravians return to obedience to Ferdinand II

21 January 1621

Frederick Placed Under the Bank

Emperor Ferdinand II places Frederick Elector Palatine under the Imperial Ban

7 February 1621

Protestant Union Meets

The Protestant Union meets at Heilbronn

12 April 1621

The Armistice of Mainz

The Protestant Union formally agrees to abandon the defense of the lands of the Winter King

25 October 1621

Mansfeldt Relieves Frankenthal

Mansfeldt arrives in the Lower Palatinate, lifting the Spanish siege of Frankenthal

6 May 1622

Battle of Wimpfen

George of Baden-Durlach is defeated at Wimpfen by the armies of the Emperor and Catholic League

22 June 1622

Battle of Hochst

Christian of Halberstadt is defeated by Tilly and Cordova

26 April 1624

RIchelieu Assumes Power

Cardinal Richelieu is appointed to the French Council of State

15 July 1625

Tilly Enters Lower Saxony

The Imperial Army under Tilly invades the Lower Saxon Circle

25 April 1626

Battle of Dessau Bridge

Mansfeldt's Danish army defeated by Wallenstein at Dessay

26 June 1626

Halberstadt Dies

Christian, the Mad Halberstadter dies of fever

5 August 1626

Tilly Takes Gottingen

The Catholic League army drives the Danes from Gottingen

8 August 1626

Wallenstein Pursues

The Imperial army leaves Zerbst in pursuit of Mansfeldt

27 August 1626

Battle of Lutter-am-Bamberg

Tilly crushingly defeats the Danes at Lutter-am-Bamberg

29 November 1626

Mansfeldt Dies

Protestant condottieri Mansfeldt dies

28 December 1626

Treaty of Pressburg

Bethlena and the Emperor make peace yet again

31 May 1627

TIlly Takes Lauenberg

The Imperial Army under Tilly enters the city of Lauenberg

18 September 1627

Danes Defeated at Grossenbrode

The last Danish field army annihilated at Grossenbrode

10 November 1627

Capitulation of Franzburg

Bogislav XIV of Pomerania consents to Imperial garrisons in Stralsund

14 December 1627

Wolfenbuttel Taken

Wallenstein takes Wolfenbuttel from the Danes

4 February 1628

Wallenstein Occupies the Island of Danholm

Wallenstein, while negotiating with the City of Stralsund, occupies the island of Danholm in the city's harbor

5 April 1628

Danholm Island Surrenders

Wallensteins forces stranded on Danholm Island in Stralsund harbor surrender to the Stralsunders

13 May 1628

Stralsund Beseiged

Wallensteins army commences the siege of Stralsund

23 June 1628

Swedes Reinforce Stralsund

The Swedes garrison Stralsund against impending Imperial siege

28 June 1628

Final Assault on Stralsund

The Imperials make a final failed assault on Stralsund

3 August 1628

Danes Take Wolgast

Christian IV having landed near Usedom, takes the city of Wolgast

12 August 1628

Battle of Wolgast

The Imperial army meets and destroys the invaidng Danes near Wolgast

22 May 1629

Treaty of Lubeck

The Danes and the Emperor make peace in the Treaty of Lubeck

14 September 1629

Peace of Altmark

The Swedes and Poles make peace

26 June 1630

Swedes Off Peenemunde

The Swedish fleet and invading army arrive off the German coast

10 July 1630

Suedo-Pomeranian Alliance

The Swedish Army compels the Pomeranians into alliance

1 August 1630

Magdeburg Allies with Sweden

The city of Magdeburg rebels against the Edict of Restitution and allies with Sweden

13 August 1630

Wallenstein Removed

Pressured by the Electors, the Emperor removes Wallenstein from command of the Imperial army

13 October 1630

Peace of Regensburg

French ambassadors, concerned by reverses in Italy, agree to a treaty to end the War of Mantuan Succssion

29 October 1630

Gustavus Despatches Madgeburg Garrison

Gustavus Adolphus sends a garrison to Madgeburg

12 November 1630

Regensburg Diet Closes

The meeting of the Electors at Regensburg is ended

24 December 1630

Swedes Take Greifenhagan

Gustavus and the Swedes take Greifenhagen

25 December 1630

Imperials Retreat

Schaumberg and the Imperial army retreat from Greifenhagen

13 January 1631

Franco-Swedish Treaty

The French and Swedes enter into the Treaty of Barwalde

20 May 1631

Magdeburg Falls

Magdeburg falls to Tilly and is destroyed in the ensuing sack

30 May 1631

Treaty of Fontainbleu

France and Bavaria enter into a secret defensive pact

19 June 1631

Brandenburg and Sweden Ally

Menaced by the Swedish army, Brandenburg is force into a Swedish alliance

19 June 1631

Peace of Cherasco

The War of the Mantuan Succession is ended

30 August 1631

Suedo-Saxon Alliance

Under threat of Imperial invasion, Saxony determines to ally with Sweden

15 April 1632

Battle of Rain

The Swedes defeat Tilly's Catholic League army at Rain

30 April 1632

Tilly Dies

General Tilly dies at Ingoldstadt Bavaria of wounds received in the battle of Rain

31 August 1632

Assault on the Alte Veste

Gustavus sends the Swedes against the Imperial entrenchments at the Alte Veste

18 September 1632

Swedes Leave Nuremberg

Gustavus and the Swedes march away from Nuremberg

21 September 1632

Wallenstein Leaves Nuremberg

Wallenstein and the Imperials march away from Nuremberg

15 November 1632

Battle of Lutzen

Gustavus is killed in a drawn battle against Wallenstein

23 April 1633

League of Heilbronn

The League of Heilbronn between the Protestant princes and Sweden is signed

13 November 1633

Bernard Takes Regensburg

The Swedish army under Saxe-Weimar takes the city of Regensburg

18 November 1633

Wallenstein Moves to Defend Regensburg

Wallenstein and the Imperial army belatedly move to defend Regensburg

12 January 1634

Wallenstein Rebels

Wallenstein demands his colonels swear an oath of loyalty to him rather than the Emperor

24 January 1634

Wallenstein Secretly Removed

Emperor Ferdinand II issues a secret order removing Wallenstein as Imperial generalissimo

13 February 1634

Gallas Flees Wallenstein's Camp

General Gallas flees Wallenstein's camp, deserting to the Imperial standard

17 February 1634

Piccolomini Flees Wallenstein's Camp

General Piccolomini deserts Wallenstein for the Imperial side

18 February 1634

Wallenstein Publicly Demoted

Ferdinand II publishes the order removing Wallenstein as generalissimo

25 February 1634

Wallenstein Killed

Wallenstein is slaughtered by his garrison at Eger (Cheb)

23 April 1634

Brandenburg Demands Pomerania

The Elector of Brandenburg demands the Swedes evacuate Pomerania and give its lands to him

22 July 1634

Imperials Take Regensburg

The King of Hungary and Aldringen take Regensburg

23 August 1634

Swedes at Nordlingen

The Swedes under Bernard of Saxe-Weimar and Horn arrive near Nordlingen

3 September 1634

Spaniards Arrive at Nordlingen

The Imperial army at Nordlingen is reinforced by the Spaniards

5 September 1634

Initial Assault at Nordlingen

The Swedes make initial attacks on the Imperial entrenchments

6 September 1634

Battle of Nordlingen

The Imperial army crushes the Swedes at Nordlingen

9 September 1634

Bernard and the Rhingrave Join

The Swedish army under Bernard, shattered at Nordlingen, joins reinforcements under Rhinegrave Otto

15 September 1634

Goppingen Taken

The victorious Imperial army takes Goppingen

16 September 1634

Heilbronn Taken

The victorious Imperial army takes Heilbronn

18 September 1634

Rothenburg Taken

The victorious Spanish army takes Rothenburg

20 September 1634

Stuttgart Taken

The victorious Imperial army takes Stuttgart

30 September 1634

Aschaffenburg Taken

The victorious Spanish army takes Aschaffenburg

9 October 1634

Alsatians Consent to Occupation

Colmar and the other Alsatian cities agree to admit French garrissons

15 October 1634

Spaniards Take Schweinfurt

The Spanish army takes Schweinfurt

1 November 1634

Treaty of Paris

The French, Swedes and Heibronn League negotiate this treaty, which the Swedes refuse to ratify

24 November 1634

Preliminaries of Pirna

The Emperor and Saxony agree on preliminary peace terms

24 January 1635

Phillipsburg Taken

Capitalizing on their victory at Nordiingen, the Imperial Army takes Phillipsburg

2 February 1635

Imperials Take Speier

The victorious Imperial Armies take the city of Speier

22 February 1635

French Flee Across the Rhine

The victorious Imperial armies drive the French armies to the left bank of the Rhine

2 April 1635

Pirna Talks Reopen

Treaty negotiations between Saxony and the Emperor, moved from Pirna, reopen at Prague

19 April 1635

Treaty of Compeignes

The French and Swedes enter into a renewal of their alliance; this treary replaced the unratified Treaty of Paris

25 May 1635

France Declares War

The French formally declare war on Spain

30 May 1635

Treaty of Prague

Saxon and Imperial ambassadors agree the terms of the Treaty of Prague

15 June 1635

Peace of Prague Ratified

The peace treaty between Saxony and the Emperor is ratified

16 June 1635

Hanau Relieved

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar temporarily

27 July 1635

Bernard and La Valette Join Forces

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar joins with the French army under La Valette

8 August 1635

Mainz Relieved

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar and the French lift the Imperial siege of Mainz

16 October 1635

Saxons Declare War

The Saxons, newly allied with the Emperor, declare war on their erstwhile Swedish allies

19 November 1635

Bernard Enters French Service

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar and his army enter French service

7 December 1635

Battle at Goldberg

Swedes beat back a Saxon probing attack

17 December 1635

Battle at Kyritz

Swedes beat back a Saxon probing attack

15 February 1636

Ferdinand II Dies

Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II dies of natural causes at Vienna

20 March 1636

Treaty of Wismar

The French and Swedes enter into the Treaty of Wismar, renewing their alliance

6 October 1636

Battle of Wittstock

The Swedes inflict a crushing defeat on the Imperial forces

22 December 1636

Ferdind Elected King of the Romans

The future Ferdinand III is elected King of the Romans, heir apparent to the Imperial throne

8 August 1638

Battle of Wittenweier

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar defeats the Imperial forces at Wittenweier

18 August 1638

Breisach Besieged

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar besieges the Imperial forces at Breisach

17 December 1638

Breisach Falls

The Imperials surrender Breisach to Bernard of Saxe-Weimar

14 April 1639

Battle of Chemnitz

The Swedes defeat the Imperial army at Chemnitz, Saxony

11 July 1639

Saxe-Weimar Dies

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar dies of plague

9 October 1639

Louis XIII Buys Bernardines

The former troops of the late Bernard of Saxe-Weimar enter the French service

3 February 1640

Electoral Diet in Nuremberg

The Electors convene at Nuremberg to discuss pacification of the Empire

13 September 1640

Regensburg Diet Opens

The Electoral Meeting opens at Regensburg

20 May 1641

Baner Dies

Swedish commander-in-chief Baner dies of natural causes

30 June 1641

Treaty of Hamburg

The French and Swedes enter into the Treaty of Hamburg confirming their alliance for the duration of the war

2 November 1642

Second Breitenfeld

The Swedish army annihilates Imperial forces at the second battle of Breitenfeld.

4 December 1642

Richelieu Dies

Cardinal Richelieu dies of natural causes

14 May 1643

Louis XIII Dies

King Louis XIII of France dies, succeeded by his minor son Louis XIV

19 May 1643

Battle of Rocroi

The French Army inflicts a crushing defeat on the Spanish at Rocroi

2 September 1643

Swedes March Toward Denmark

The Swedish army leaves Bohemia to march toward the Danes

19 November 1643

French Take Rottweil

The advancing French army takes the city of Rottweil

24 November 1643

de Guebriant Dies

French general de Guebriant dies of wounds received taking Rottweil

24 November 1643

Battle of Tuttlingen

Bavarian forces surprise and destroy the French army

2 December 1643

Rottweil Retaken

The Bavarians retake Rottweil from the defeated French

22 December 1643

Swedes Invade Jutland

The Swedish army invades the Danish Jutland penninsula

15 April 1644

Bavarians Advance

The Bavarian army advances across the Black Forest toward the French

11 May 1644

Mercy Takes Uberlingen

The Catholic League under Mercy takes the city of Uberlingen

20 June 1644

Hohentweil Siege Lifted

Bavarian General Mercy lifts his siege of the fortress Hohentweil

26 June 1644

Mercy Before Freiburg

Bavarian General Mercy appears before French-held Freiburg

11 July 1644

Treaty of Hamburg Ratified

The Emperor ratifies the Preliminary Treaty of Hamburg setting up the Westphalian peace negotiations

28 July 1644

Mercy Takes Freiburg

Bavarian General Mercy takes French-held Freiburg

3 August 1644

Conde Attacks

Conde sends his troops against the entrenched Bavarians before Freiburg-im-Breisgau

5 August 1644

Conde Attacks Again

Conde again sends his troops against the entrenched Bavarians before Freiburg-im-Breisgau

5 May 1645

Battle of Mergentheim

Turrenne and the French army defeated by the Bavarians at Mergentheim

11 June 1645

Franco-Swedish Demands

The French and Swedish ambassadors to the Westphalian negotiations issue their initial demands

3 August 1645

Second Battle of Nordlingen

Franco-Hessian forces meet and defeat the Bavarian army near Nordlingen

8 August 1645

Peace for Emperor and Transylvania

Under the impetus of the Sultan, the Transylvanians make peace with the Habsburgs again

31 August 1645

Truce of Kotzschenbrode

The Swedes grant the Saxons of a six-month truce

25 September 1645

Emperor Rejects Religious Concessions

At the Westphalian negoations, Imperial ambassadors rejects the Swedish proposals on religious issues

29 November 1645

Trautsmandorff Arrives in Westphalia

Imperial ambassador Trautsmandorff arrives at the Westphalian peace talks

7 January 1646

Swedish Land Demands

At the Westphalian peace negotiations, the Swedish ambassadors put forth proposals for territorial indemnification of Sweden

11 January 1646

French Land Demands

At the Westphalian peace negotiations, the French ambassadors put forth proposals for territorial indemnification of France

6 March 1646

Battle of Jankau

Torstensson and the Swedes defeat the Imperial forces at Jankau

14 April 1646

Peace of Eilenberg

Saxony and the Swedes enter into a final armistice, neutralizing Saxony for the rest of the war

10 August 1646

Turenne and Wrangel Join

The French and Swedish armies join forces

14 August 1646

The Franco-Swedish Advance

The joint French and Swedish force turns the Imperial flank and advance toward Bavaria

31 August 1646

Phillipsburg Conceded

At the Westphalian negotiations, the Habsburgs concede Phillipsburg to the French

4 September 1646

Imperials Pursue

The Imperial army sets off in pursuit the French in an attempt to protect Bavaria

13 September 1646

Preliminary Franco-Imperial Treaty

At the Westphalian negotiations, Imperial ambassadors rejects the Swedish proposals on religious issues

15 March 1647

The Treaty of Ulm

Bavaria makes peace with France and Sweden

25 August 1647

Ambush at Triebel

Werth ambushes the advancing Swedes at Triebel

30 January 1648

Hispano-Dutch Peace

The Spanish and Dutch make peace under the Treaty of Munster, ending eighty years of war

17 May 1648

Battle of Zusmarhausen

The French inflict a crushing defeat on the Imperials, whose general Melander is killed in the battle

26 July 1648

Prague Besieged

The Swedish Army besieges Prague

24 October 1648

Peace of Westphalia Proclaimed

The treaties of Osbruck and Munster are proclaimed, ending the war